- Observation - making sure you know what other road users are in your vicinity
- Anticipation - thinking well in advance about what other road users may do next
- Concentration - understanding the actions of other road users whilst driving
- Distraction - making sure you focus on your driving and avoid distraction
- Concentration - staying alert when driving & knowing what factors may affect your driving.
- Stop at traffic lights and ask pedestrians
- Shout to other drivers to ask them the way
- Turn into a side road, stop and check a map
- Check a map, and keep going with the traffic flow
- Never use a hand-held mobile phone while driving
- If you receive a call while driving pull up and stop in a safe, convenient location before answering it.
- The reason you can't use a hand-held mobile phone while driving is because it will cause you to lose concentration.
- Although you can use a hands-free mobile phone while driving it is still likely to divert your attention from the road.
- have regular rest stops, always take a break after driving for two hours.
- plan your route before setting off.
- Blind Spot - an area not covered by your mirrors.
- Overtaking - never overtake on the brow of a hill, approaching a bend, approaching a dip in the road, approaching a left-hand junction.
- Large Vehicles - keep well back when following a large vehicle as this helps the driver of the vehicle see you in their mirrors.
- Tired Whilst Driving - then find a suitable place to stop and get some rest. Allow fresh air into your vehicle.
- Losing Concentration - loud music, using a mobile phone, tuning the car radio, looking at a map and objects hanging from your interior mirror can all cause you to lose concentration and distract your attention.
- A-Frames - also known as windscreen pillars can obstruct your view of the road, especially when approaching a bend or junction. At junctions always be look twice for cyclists and motorcyclists.
- Headlights - always turn your lights on at dusk, even if the street lights have yet to come on. You use lights so other road users can see you.
- Overtaking - never overtake while approaching a junction, a dip in the road or a brow of a hill.
- Alcohol and illegal substances (drugs) will affect your ability to drive. Don't drive when under their influence.
- Medicine - don't drive if you have taken a medicine that has the potential to make your feel tired and groggy. If unsure, consult your doctor.
- Reversing - if you can't see behind you when reversing, ask someone to guide you.
- Lights - switch on your car lights when it starts to get dark, even if the street lights aren't on.
- Use your horn to be 'seen' - where you can't be seen, such as at a hump bridge, you may need to sound your horn to warn other road users of your presence.
- Objects hanging from your interior mirror may restrict your view.
Knowledge and Understanding Plan your journey to include suitable rest stops. You should take all possible precautions against feeling sleepy while driving. Any lapse of concentration could have serious consequences.
Keep looking around at the surrounding landscape
Drive faster to complete your journey faster
Ensure a supply of fresh air into your vehicle
Stop on the hard shoulder for a rest
Knowledge and UnderstandingIf you are following a large vehicle but are so close to it that you can not see the exterior mirrors, the driver can�t see you. Keeping well back will also allow you to see the road ahead by looking past either side of the large vehicle.
Helps the large vehicle to stop more easily
Allows the driver to see you in the mirrors
Helps you to keep out of the wind
KKnowledge and UnderstandingYou should be constantly scanning the road for clues about what is going to happen next. Check your mirrors regularly, particularly as soon as you spot a hazard. What is happening behind may affect your response to hazards ahead.
To access how your actions will affect following traffic
Because you will need to brake sharply to stop
To check what is happening on the road ahead
Knowledge and UnderstandingAs you drive, look well ahead and all around so that you are ready for any hazards that might occur. There may be occasions when you have to stop in an emergency. React as soon as you can whilst keeping control of the vehicle.
Keep both hand on the wheel
Select reverse gear
Give an arm signal
Knowledge and UnderstandingIf you want to turn your car around try to find a place where you have good all-round vision. If this isn�t possible and you are unable to see clearly, then get someone to guide you.
Open the door and look behind
Look in the nearside mirror
Ask someone to guide you
Knowledge and UnderstandingWindscreen pillars can obstruct your view, particularly at bends and junctions. Look out for other road users, particularly cyclists and pedestrians, as they can be hard to see.
Driving on a dual carriageway
Approaching a one-way street
Approaching bends and junctions
Knowledge and UnderstandingNo phone call is important enough to risk endangering lives. It is better to switch your phone off completely when driving. If you must be contactable plan your route to include breaks so you can catch up on messages in safety. Always choose a safe and convenient place to take a break, such as a lay-by or service area.
Stop in a proper and convenient place
Keep the call time to a minimum
Slow down and allow others to overtake
Knowledge and UnderstandingIt is easy to be distracted. Planning your journey before you set off is important. A few sensible precautions are to tune your radio to stations in your area of travel, take planned breaks, and plan your route. Except for emergencies it is illegal to use a hand-held mobile phone while driving. Even using a hands-free kit can distract your attention.
Talking into a microphone
Tuning your car radio
Looking at a map
Checking the mirrors
Using the demisters
Knowledge and UnderstandingAt junctions your view is often restricted by buildings, trees or parked cars. You need to be able to see in order to judge a safe gap. Edge forward slowly and keep looking all the time. Do not cause other road users to change speed or direction as you emerge.
Move quickly to where you can see so you only block traffic from one direction
Wait for a pedestrian to let you know when it is safe for you to emerge
Turn your vehicle around immediately and find another junction to use
Knowledge and Understanding
In a one-way street
On a 30 mph road
Approaching a dip in the road
Knowledge and UnderstandingExcept in a genuine emergency you MUST NOT use your mobile phone when driving. If you need to use it leave the motorway and find a safe place to stop. Even a hands-free phone can distract your attention. Use your voicemail to receive calls. Driving requires all of your attention, all of the time.
Leave the motorway and stop in a safe place
Use the next exit and pull up on the slip road
Move to the left lane and reduce your speed
Knowledge and UnderstandingWhile driving your concentration is required all the time. Even using a hands-free kit can still distract your attention from the road. Any distraction, however brief, is potentially dangerous and could cause you to lose control. Except in a genuine emergency, it is an offence to use a hand-held phone while driving.
Will significantly reduce your field of vision
Will affect your vehicle's electronic systems
Is still likely to distract your attention from the road
Knowledge and UnderstandingVehicle navigation systems can be useful when driving on unfamiliar routes. However they can also distract you and cause you to lose control if you look at or adjust them while driving. Pull up in a convenient and safe place before adjusting them.
Keep going as the system will adjust to your route
Stop immediately to view and use the system
Stop in a safe place before using the system
Knowledge and UnderstandingIt is easy to lose your way in an unfamiliar area. If you need to check a map or ask for directions, first find a safe place to stop.
Shout to other drivers to ask them the way
Turn into a side road, stop and check a map
Check a map, and keep going with the traffic flow
Knowledge and UnderstandingIt is illegal to use a hand-held mobile phone while driving, except in a genuine emergency. Even using hands-free kit can distract your attention. Park in a safe and convenient place before receiving or making a call or using text messaging. Then you will also be free to take notes or refer to papers.
Driving at less than 30 mph
Driving an automatic vehicle